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Ingredient Quantity Substitute

self rising flour 1 cup     =   1 cup all-purpose flour, 1/2 tsp salt, and 1 tsp. baking powder

cornstarch 1 tablespoon     =   2 T. flour or 2 tsp. quick-cooking tapioca

baking powder 1 teaspoon     =   1/4 tsp. baking soda plus 1/2 tsp. cream of tartar

powdered sugar 1 cup     =   1 c. granulated sugar plus 1 tsp. cornstarch

brown sugar 1/2 cup     =   2 T. molasses in 1/2 cup granulated sugar

sour milk 1 cup     =   1 T. lemon juice or vinegar plus sweet milk to make 1 cup (let stand 5 minutes)

whole milk 1 cup     =   1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water

cracker crumbs 3/4 cup     =   1 cup bread crumbs

chocolate 1 square  (1 oz.)     =   3 or 4 T cocoa plus 1 T butter

fresh herbs 1 tablespoon     =   1 teaspoon dried herbs

fresh onion 1 small     =   1 T. instant minced onion, rehydrated

dry mustard 1 teaspoon     =   1 T. prepared mustard

tomato juice 1 cup     =   1/2 c. tomato sauce plus 1/2 c. water

catsup or chili sauce 1 cup     =   1 c. tomato sauce plus 1/2 c. sugar and 2 T. Vinegar

dates 1 lb.     =   1 1/2 c. dates, pitted and cut

bananas 3 medium     =   1 c. mashed

mini marshmallows 10     =   1 lge. marshmallow

butter 1 stick     =   8 T. or 1/2 cup

buttermilk 1 cup     =   1 cup yogurt

coconut, flaked 3 1/2 oz.     =   1 1/3 cups

cream, sour 1 cup     =   3 T. butter plus 7/8 cup sour milk


In substituting cocoa for chocolate in cakes, the amount of flour must be reduced.
Brown and White Sugars: Usually may be used interchangeably.